Display Settings keyboard shortcut Windows 10

Windows 10 Windows 8.1 & Windows 8.1 RT Windows 7 Keyboard shortcuts are keys or combinations of keys that provide an alternative way to do something that you'd typically do with a mouse. Click an option below, and it'll open to display a table of related shortcuts In Windows 10 that is usually accessed by pressing Windows Key + P and choose Extend or Duplicate You could put a new shortcut on your Desktop (right click your Desktop, choose New - Shortcut) and add the appropriate string in the location box to perform the switc Here's how to exert as much influence as you can over how Windows 10 displays setting shortcuts: Tap or click the Start icon, the Settings icon, and then System. Or you can get into Settings from the bottom of the action center. On the left, choose Notifications & Actions On Windows 10, File Explorer includes many keyboard shortcuts to help you complete tasks a little quicker. Here's a list with the most useful shortcuts for File Explorer. Keyboard shortcut Just Double-clicking on the shortcut icon to access the Display Settings in Windows. Right-click on the Desktop and select New. Choose Shortcut from the pop-up menu

Video: Keyboard shortcuts in Windows - support

Display Switch (aka: Project or Second Screen) is used to change the presentation mode of the main display of your Windows 10 device or PC to display on either the PC screen only, duplicate on second display, extend across all displays, or second screen only. By default, you can press the Win + P keys to open the Display Switch flyout Often a software update might end up messing up your display settings on a Windows 10 PC. The typical reaction would be to look for a reset display settings button. However, there is no such button..

Create Settings shortcut in Windows 10 | Tutorials

Rotate Screen Windows 10 with Keyboard Shortcut. In Windows 10, you can use the direct way to flip screen and that is using the keyboard combination. But before you do, make sure the Hot Keys feature has been enabled. This way is only available for some PCs with the Intel graphics drivers 6 ways to turn on On-Screen Keyboard in Windows 10: Way 1: Open On-Screen Keyboard in PC settings. Step 1: Enter PC settings.. Step 2: Select Ease of Access in the settings.. Step 3: Choose Keyboard, and tap the switch under On-Screen Keyboard to turn it on.. Way 2: Turn On-Screen Keyboard on in Ease of Access Center The Windows key made its first appearance in 1994, and it's still an essential tool for Windows 10 power users. Here are the most important Windows key keyboard shortcuts for Windows 10 you should know about.. Starting with Windows 95, the Windows key could perform basic desktop tasks like opening the start menu, minimizing all open windows, cycling through taskbar buttons, and so on Here's how to make it work: Right-click or tap and hold any blank place on the Windows 10 Desktop. Choose New > Shortcut. Pick one of the ms-settings apps listed below and type it into the input.. Steps to create shortcut for Display on Windows 10 desktop: Step 1: Right-click blank area on the desktop, point at New in the menu and select Shortcut in the sub-list.. Step 2: Type the location of the display file (i.e. c:\windows\system32\dpiscaling.exe) and tap Next to continue.. Step 3: Enter Display to name the shortcut and hit Finish to create it.. For your reference, the shortcut.

Keyboard shortcut for display profiles - Microsoft Communit

How to Display Settings Shortcuts in Windows 10 - dummie

  1. Click Display from the sidebar, and then click Advanced Scaling settings. Clear previous settings and choose Apply. After that, you have reset display settings Windows 10 successfully. Apart from the above settings, to reset display settings Windows 10, you also need to do other settings, such as turning off Night Light, turning off Tablet Mode.
  2. If you use the Settings app a lot, it might be a good idea to pin its shortcut to the Windows 10 taskbar or the Start Menu. To do that, open the Start Menu and right-click or press and hold the Settings icon. A menu is opened. Here, select Pin to Start or More -> Pin to taskbar, depending on where you want the Settings shortcut to be placed
  3. The following Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts all use the Windows logo key as described above. WINDOWS+A - Opens the Action Center (see image above), which includes notifications and settings buttons like the Tablet Mode button, the brightness button and the full Windows All Settings button
  4. The Brightness slider appears in action center in Windows 10, version 1903. To find the brightness slider in earlier versions of Windows 10, select Settings > System > Display, and then move the Change brightness slider to adjust the brightness. If you don't have a desktop PC and the slider doesn't appear or work, try updating the display driver
  5. You just have to head over to Settings > Display and toggle the button for Show taskbar on all displays off. Also See: How to Use an Android Tablet as Extended Desktop for a Windows PC 2
  6. Start Menu: To open the Start Menu: Click the Start button or press the Windows key. To resize the App tile on the Start Menu: Right click on a tile, click size and select a size. To rearrange Tiles: Tiles are organized into groups of related apps. Drag a tile to a new location in a group, or drag it between groups to start a new group
  7. Note that you can't search for the application by name in the Start menu. Windows 10 won't let you drag and drop anything from the search results. It should, but it doesn't. How to Create a Shortcut to a File or Folder. To create a desktop shortcut to a file, first, locate the file somewhere in File Explorer

List of all Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts: The ultimate

Change Display Scaling Globally. Windows 10 auto selects the Display Scaling for each Display based on the resolution and pixel density. To view the default Display Scaling in Windows 10, Right Click on the Desktop and select the Display Settings option. Alternatively, you can also select the Display option in the Control Panel and then click the Change Display Setting link Step 1: Right-click on the newly created Settings app shortcut and click the Properties option to open its properties. Step 2: Here, under the Web Document tab, you will see the Change Icon button. Click on the same to choose one of the icons that ship with Windows 10, click OK and then click Apply. If you want to use an icon that you have. To change hotkeys to switch keyboard layout in Windows 10, do the following. Open Settings. Go to Time & language - Keyboard. Click on the Advanced keyboard settings link. Update: Starting with build 17083, the Advanced Options link was moved to Devices - Typing. The Keyboard page was eliminated. There, click on the link Language bar options

Create Display Settings Shortcut in Windows 10! - Tec?Kangaro

  1. In this video, I demonstrate how to quickly change your display settings in Windows using the Windows Presentation Mode keyboard shortcut, accessed by pressi..
  2. This page lists the complete keyboard shortcuts for Windows 10. Contents Windows 10 (General) Windows Logo key (Winkey) Command Prompt Dialog box File Explorer Virtual Desktops Taskbar Apps Accessibility Microsoft Surface Hub Continuum for phones Windows 10 Keyboard shortcuts Press this key To do this Ctrl + X Cut th
  3. Here we show you how to change the keyboard shortcuts in Windows 10 using this great tool. Related: 13 Useful Windows 10 Registry Hacks to Optimize Your Experience. Meet AutoHotKey. So let's start with the bad news, which is that there is no native way to change the default keyboard shortcuts in Windows
  4. Right-click on the empty space on your desktop and select the Display settings from the context menu. Step 2. In the Settings window, click on the Advanced display settings option. Step 3. Then change the screen resolution of your Windows 10 PC. Select a relatively higher value from the drop-down menu and then click on Apply to confirm this change
  5. This will display your current screen resolution. This can work on many devices including a PC, laptop, mobile phone, and a tablet. The only problem I found in this approach was when I increase the scale and layout size of the text in Windows 10 to more than 100%
  6. common Windows shortcuts, shortcuts for changing the position of the active window, taskbar shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts using the Windows key (⊞ Win) can be used while the guide is displayed. The result of those shortcuts (active window moved, arrow shortcut behavior changes, etc) will be displayed in the guide

Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts. If the mouse is slowing you down, this complete list includes the most useful keyboard shortcuts to perform tasks on Windows 10 a little faster. Essential shortcuts. These are the essential keyboard shortcuts that every Windows 10 user should know Available through Microsoft's PowerToys for Windows 10, the Shortcut Guide overlays a display of all the Windows key shortcuts. To access the guide, press down on the Windows key. To access the. The Settings app will open and you'll be on your profile info page. Click Home to go to the top of the Settings app. Run the command in the Run app. You can also use the Run app to open settings. Open the Run app using the Windows + R keyboard shortcut. Once opened, enter. ms-settings: In the text box and then click OK You can split your screen on a Windows 10 computer by snapping windows into place. Your screen can be split into halves, thirds, or quarters. A few easy keyboard shortcuts can also quickly split.

Windows 10 allows you to create custom shortcuts for any program, whether it's a traditional desktop app, a new-fangled universal app or one of Windows 8's metro apps. Here's how. Method 1. General Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts Keyboard shortcut Function F4 Display the address bar list in File Explorer F5 Refresh the active window F10 Activate the menu bar in the active app ⊞ Win+ D Display and hide desktop. Popular Click the Advanced display settings link. Click the Display adapter properties for Display 1 link

Create Display Switch shortcut in Windows 10 Tutorial

Windows Key+I: Open Windows 10 settings. Windows Key+ 1, 2, 3: Launch a pinned program on your Taskbar. Ctrl+Shift while clicking a program icon to run as admin. Windows Key+ Alt+D: Get to the. 1. How to Enable On-screen Keyboard Using the On-screen Keyboard Shortcut. Keyboard shortcuts provide quick ways to access different settings and features in your Windows PC including the on-screen keyboard. To access the keyboard via a shortcut, press the CTRL + Windows key + O (letter o) simultaneously Windows logo key +Z. Show the commands available in an app in full-screen mode. Windows logo key +comma (,) Temporarily peek at the desktop. Windows logo key +Pause. Display the System Properties dialog box. Windows logo key +Ctrl+F. Search for PCs (if you're on a network) Windows logo key +Shift+M If you can't use the keyboard shortcuts advantage on your Windows 10 device, we have put together some quick fixes in this guide. 1. Run Keyboard Troubleshooter. A quick and simple solution to fix your problem is to use Windows 10 Keyboard Troubleshooter. Here is how you can do it: Click Start, then head to Settings > System > Update & Security

How to Reset Display Settings to Default on Windows 1

How to Rotate Screen on Windows 10? 4 Simple Methods Are Here

  1. It is very easy to modify screen resolution on Windows 10. Here are detailed steps for doing that. Step 1: Right-click on the empty space on your desktop and then click the Display settings option in the pop-up menu. Step 2: In the prompted menu, click the arrow icon behind Resolution. Choose the Recommended screen resolution in the drop-down menu
  2. Create a Custom Settings Shortcut in Windows 10. To create your custom Settings shortcut, find the URI for the Settings page you'd like to link to from the list at the bottom of this page
  3. g. Then toggle on Record game clips, screenshots, and broadcast using Game Bar. Next, press Windows + G and click the Record button in the Capture widget. Another way: Open a PowerPoint presentation, go to Insert > Screen Recording. Select an area on the Windows desktop and select Record
  4. How to use ms-settings commands. As I mentioned above, the ms-settings commands allow you to open any Settings page directly, simply by entering the appropriate URI in the Run dialog (Win + R), command line, etc.You can also use this feature to create shortcuts to any of the Parameter pages. Open any Settings page in Windows 1
  5. Click your profile picture then click Settings. Click Keyboard Shortcuts. The keyboard shortcuts will appear. Editing shortcuts. You can edit a shortcut by clicking on the shortcut and then pressing the shortcut key that you would like to use. Some of the shortcuts can be used as global shortcuts, meaning they will work even when Zoom is not in.

In Windows 10, this keyboard shortcut opens up the Control Center and the Notification Panel. But in Windows 11, it launches just the Action Center with the Quick Settings panel. That's the case because Microsoft has separated Action Center and Notifications Panel in its latest desktop OS Change screen rotation using settings app: Please ensure that you are using windows 10 before using this method. Press the link given in the box to launch the settings app. Click on the Open Settings button. Once you are in the settings app, use the Display orientation dropdown to choose the current orientation

6 Ways to Turn on On-Screen Keyboard in Windows 1

The easiest way to locate an off-screen window is to use the desktop arrangement settings in Windows 10. Most often used to arrange multiple windows on a desktop, it can also be useful in this. In Windows on your Mac, do one of the following: Use Windows: Click the Start button, choose Settings, then click System. In the list on the left, click Display, then set brightness options as desired. Use your Apple keyboard: Press the increase brightness key or the decrease brightness key . Note: You may need to press and hold the Fn key as. Guide to Record Full Screen Window 10: Step 1. Press Windows + G to launch Xbox Game Bar.. Step 2. Agree Yes, this is a game. to open the Game Bar. Step 3. Click Windows + Alt + R to start and stop recording. >> More Details When you want to share something interesting on your screen, the easiest way is to record it as a video and share it with your friends

Windows 10: split your screen with your mouse or shortcuts. 04.05.2020; Configuration; When you use two or more programs at the same time, the back and forth between them can be tiresome and ineffective. Luckily, there's a practical solution to this in Windows 10: split screen mode Windows 11 comes with many new features and improvements, among which there are several new keyboard shortcuts. So far, Microsoft released only one official preview build, so in the future, the list of new keyboard shortcuts in Windows 11 may expand Windows 10 Right Click Menu. Well, maybe you are wondering then how to dim the computer screen for Windows 10. Because in the Windows 10 Personalize menu there is no computer brightness setting option. How you can hover over an empty location on the Windows start page. Then right-click it will display menus including the Personalize menu

30 Essential Windows Key Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows 1

Please note that this is available on Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise, and Education. Use the Windows key + R keyboard shortcut to open the Run command Type gpedit.msc and click OK to open the Local Group Policy Editor Head on over to the following path: Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > System > Power Management > Sleep Settings Windows 10 update has stuck my resolution at 2048x1152? I did an update this morning and it has locked my resolution to 2k. I can change the resolution in settings, home, display however the display doesn't change whatsoever and if I look under advanced display settings that doesn't change it either. I5-4590 16gigs of ram Intel hd 4600 with thr. The Windows logo key (also known as Windows-, win-, start-, logo-, flag-, or super-key) is a keyboard key which was originally introduced on the Microsoft Natural keyboard in 1994. This key became a standard key on PC keyboards.In Windows tapping the key brings up the start menu. Ctrl+Esc performs the same function, in case the keyboard lacks this key My laptop's screen stopped working suddenly. I connected another display to the laptop using HDMI. How can I mirror/duplicate to extended display with keyboard shortcut only, as current screen is not working. Then I can look into the issues. OS: windows 10. Thanks Full Screen Shortcuts For Chrome. Google Chrome also has a full-screen mode, which hides distractions on the desktop, including the menu buttons, open tabs, bookmarks bar, and the operating system's taskbar and clock. Chrome will take up all the space on your screen when it is in full-screen mode. On Windows. Keyboard Shortcut: F11 or Fn + F1

How to Disable On-Screen Keyboard on Windows 10Windows 10 Keyboard Shortcuts Cheat Sheet | Windows 10

How to make shortcuts to Windows 10 settings on your

The URI enables users to open any Settings page using the Command Prompt or Run window, or address bar of Windows Explorer, .bat scripts, etc. Check out the complete list of Shortcuts to directly open pages in Settings app in Windows 10 Click on the Windows Start button on the lower-bottom edge of your display. Then go to Settings (click the gear-like icon) to open the settings app. Alternatively press Win + I shortcut keys to open Windows Settings app. Open Settings. To open display settings, click System (the first option in the list). Open System Settings.

Create Shortcut for Display on Desktop in Windows 1

  1. To change the monitor resolution, you would usually right-click the desktop and open the Display Settings window. However, you can change the resolution settings with keyboard shortcuts (aka hotkeys). As Windows doesn't include any options that add keyboard shortcuts to monitor resolutions, you should install HotKey Resolution Changer to do this
  2. Windows 10 has four different projection modes that work with secondary monitors or TVs connected to your PC. To change the projection mode, you can tap the Win+P keyboard shortcut to open the Project panel and you can select whether you want to use both screens, a single screen, or duplicate your screens
  3. How to Customize Keyboard Settings on Windows 10. Way 1: Settings app. Bring the Start Menu on your screen and you can see a gear symbol saying Settings. Click on Settings. After the Settings app window gets spread on your screen, choose Ease of Access category. Now look at the left pane of Ease of Access and you can see many areas of settings.
  4. Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts make things happen with just a tap on the keyboard. Here are shortcuts for everything from taking a screenshot to controlling your taskbar
  5. The iPad is used to turn on the TV screen and select which presentation point on the desk the user wants to share from, there are notes how to do this in the room along with press windows and P and duplicate on the sheet - the calls we get about this are 99% of the time because the iPad isn't working because someone use the socket to charge.
  6. Check out the shortcuts below and you may find a few that will make you faster and more productive: Windows logo key = Open and close start menu. Windows logo key + A = Open Notifications. Windows.
10 awesome tricks you can perform with Windows keyboard

Windows 10 Shortcut For Setting

GuruAid will help you to learn How to Open Narrator Settings using Keyboard Shortcut on Windows 10. Narrator is a screen reader, that reads all the elements. You can use the Taskbar search box to open the Settings in Windows 11/10. You need to make a search for 'Settings' and open the respective result. 4. Use Win+X menu. Microsoft has introduced a new keyboard shortcut that allows you to open a couple of options and settings. The Windows 11/10 Settings is available in that preset list Use a Keyboard Shortcut. Windows 10 is packed full of keyboard shortcuts to help you streamline your workflow, so it should come as no surprise that there's a keyboard shortcut to open the Settings menu. RELATED: The 20 Most Important Keyboard Shortcuts For Windows PCs. Just press Windows+i and the Settings menu will launch. Use the Start Men

7 ways to adjust the screen brightness in Windows 10

50 Windows 10 Keyboard Shortcuts. Opens the Notification center. Minimize all windows. Opens the File Explorer window. Open the Game Bar to record screen or gameplay. Opens the wireless display panel to cast the screen. Opens the Start Menu search. Open the Ease of Access settings page The following table lists the default keyboard shortcuts that are set on the Functions on the DisplayFusion Settings > Functions tab. There are many more Functions available in DisplayFusion, but we've only assigned keyboard shortcuts to the most used Functions by default Best Windows 10 display settings to improve reading & viewing experience. Change the Size of Text, Icons, and Apps. Tune the Text. Color Calibration. Night Light. High DPI Scaling. Resolution. Changing all of these is a personal choice. You will have to experiment to figure out what works best for you

How to rotate screen on Windows 10 Windows Centra

  1. Keyboard Shortcuts to Task View is a blessing for the users who love to work with the Virtual desktops on Windows 10. As you may have already guessed by now, there are dozens of keyboard shortcuts for Windows Task View and Timeline. Here are some of the keyboard shortcuts for Windows Task View: Virtual Desktop Shortcuts
  2. To view all browser tabs on Windows 10, you need to change a quick setting, follow these steps. Launch Windows Settings using the keyboard shortcut Windows Key + I or use the start menu to go to.
  3. Seek to the 10% to 90% of the video. Number 0 on the seek bar (not on the numeric pad) Seek to the beginning of the video. / Go to search box. f: Activate full screen. If full screen mode is enabled, activate F again or press escape to exit full screen mode. c: Activate closed captions and subtitles if available
  4. Windows Lock Screen Settings. Click on the Start button and then select the gear settings icon. This will open Windows Settings app with lots of option. Alternatively, you can also use Win Logo + I keyboard shortcut keys to open the settings app. When the settings app is opened, click onPersonalization option
  5. A good way to rotate the screen in Windows 10 when the shortcut doesn't work is to use a built-in option in the Settings app. It lets you quickly change the orientation of your screen to whatever you want with the click of a few options.. Go to the desktop on your PC, right-click anywhere blank, and choose the option that says Display settings.It'll directly take you to the screen you want.
Quickly change display settings with the Windows+P

Turn full-screen mode on or off ⌘ + Ctrl + f: Make everything on the page bigger ⌘ and + Make everything on the page smaller ⌘ and - Return everything on the page to the default size ⌘ + 0: Scroll down a webpage, a screen at a time: Space: Scroll up a webpage, a screen at a time: Shift + Space: Search the web ⌘ + Option + Keyboard shortcuts (Windows) Use keyboard shortcuts to perform many tasks in FileMaker Pro. Note To create your own keyboard shortcuts, see Creating and editing custom menu items. General keyboard shortcuts (Windows) Use these keyboard shortcuts to navigate, cancel an operation, and display information in your database file How to Open the Settings app in Windows 10 (all the possible ways) Windows 10 has a special app called Settings. It is a UWP app created to replace the aged Control Panel tool. It includes a number of pages with options organized into categories. Many of its options are inherited from the classic Control Panel

Full Guide - How to Reset Display Settings Windows 1

Just open the Run command with the keyboard shortcut Windows Key-R and type ms-settings:Settings page URI. The list of Settings URIs is displayed at the bottom of this article but, for example, ms-settings:display will launch the Display page in the Settings app. Ms Settings Display Windows 10 To Creat Launch Screen Saver Settings dialog in Windows 10. Step 1: Open the Settings app. To open it, open Start and then click Settings (the gear icon). The Settings app can also be launched with the help of Windows + I keyboard shortcut. Step 2: Click on the Personalization category to navigate to the same. Tip: You can quickly navigate to the. 3: Invert colors Windows 10 hotkey, keyboard shortcut - You can fix the issue with inverted colors by using a single keyboard shortcut. And the shortcut key is left Alt + left Shift + Print Screen, try it. 4: Inverted colors on Dell & HP laptop - Many laptops users reported this issue so, make sure to follow the solutions 1. Windows-L. Hit the Windows key and the L key on your keyboard. Keyboard shortcut for the lock! 2. Ctrl-Alt-Del. Press Ctrl-Alt-Delete. On the menu that pops up, click Lock. Boom, done

Shortcut key to rotate screen > THAIPOLICEPLUS

This post lists the Windows 10 ease of access keyboard shortcuts. Windows operating systems comes with a unique component named Ease of Access Center. Ease of access center provides the users great set of features. Some of the features includes Narrator, Magnifier, On-screen Keyboard and High Contrast settings How To Shrink Screen Back To Its Normal Size On Windows 10. There are several ways to get your laptop screen back to normal again. We cover them below: Option 1: Change Screen Resolution In Windows 10. Most times, the cause of a weird display screen is tied to the setting of its resolution Windows 10 Quick Reference Guide Windows Desktop and Start Menu Start Menu Open the Start Menu: Click the Start button on the taskbar, or, press the key. Resize an App Tile in the Start Menu: Right-click a tile, select Resize, and select a size. Rearrange Tiles: Click and drag a tile to a new location in a group. Or, drag a tile between group Delete Registry Key: ms-settings. Method 1. Reset Windows Store Cache. Please follow the steps below to reset the Windows Store cache. (1) Press Win + R keys together to open the Run window. (2) Type wsreset.exe and press Enter, then you will see the following window. (3) If you see the following window, please wait for a few minutes until the. On keyboards made for Windows PCs, use the Alt key instead of Option, and the Windows logo key instead of Command. Some keys on some Apple keyboards have special symbols and functions, such as for display brightness , keyboard brightness , Mission Control, and more.If these functions aren't available on your keyboard, you might be able to reproduce some of them by creating your own keyboard.

15 ways to open Windows 10 Settings Digital Citize

Windows 10 is the most popular desktop operating system in the world, and while Windows 11 is nipping at its heels, most of us will still be running Microsoft's current OS for the foreseeable. The menu includes common settings like volume, screen brightness, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and more. If you want to use a keyboard shortcut to launch it, use Windows key + A and it will fly out of the.

To access the Advanced startup with Settings, use these steps: Open Settings on Windows 10. Click on Update & Security. Click on Recovery. Under the Advanced startup section, click the Restart button. Advanced Startup button. Quick note: The Advanced startup option in the Settings app isn't available through a Remote Desktop Connection Windows 10 Accessibility Features. Windows 10 brings meaningful innovation to all people, whether you have a disability, a personal preference, or a unique work style. With a robust set of built-in and third-party accessibility features, Windows 10 lets you choose how to interact with your screen, express ideas, and get work done Screenshots using Windows+Shift+S. After pressing Windows key+Shift+S, the screen will dim, you can drag to select a portion of the screen to capture.The screenshot is copied to the clipboard, and you can paste it into another program by clicking Edit > Paste or pressing Ctrl+V, just as paste a full-screen shortcut taken with the Print Screen key.. On the top of the screen you will see the.

How to customise your Quick Actions in Windows 10’s Action

2. After you have located the Fn lock key on your keyboard, locate the Fn key beside the Windows key and press the Fn key + Fn lock key to enable or disable the standard F1, F2, F12 keys. 3. Finally, you do not have to hold down the Fn key for using the functions keys. This means you can easily disable or enable the function key in Windows 10 The key has worked this way for years and isn't new to Windows 10. You can automate the file saving process if you want. The Win+PrntScrn keyboard shortcut is new and exclusive to Windows 8/8.1 and 10. You have to hold down the Windows key and tap the Print Screen key to take a full-screen screenshot

3 Ways to Switch Keyboard Input Languages in Windows 8